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Passive investing strategy
I have been holding crypto and following the ecosystem for a long time, and I believe crypto will revolutionise the financial system and still has much potential to increase in value. However until now my holdings have been mostly handpicked. In traditional investments I am a subscriber to passive investing and usually invest in broad index funds, and I want to apply that investment philosophy to my crypto holdings. With this in mind I looked at some available crypto indices and none of them seemed to fill my needs, but looking at them helped me define some of the criteria for my own index:
Not too broad
I will be reproducing the index manually, so having too many assets will make the extra hassle of trading and storing the small-weighted assets not worth it.
I don't see the point of including stablecoins in a cryptoasset index. If I wanted to invest in the asset the stablecoin tracks I'd be better off holding the followed asset itself.
Exclude centrally managed tokens
All indices I found included assets such as Binance Coin and OKB. I see investing in such assets as investing in the managing entity and not in the crypto ecosystem itself, as those tokens will be much more correlated with the business success of the entity than with the success of the ecosystem.
Require reasonable trading availability
The asset must be available for trading in a reasonable number of exchanges.
Market capitalization weighting
Free-float market cap weighting is the standard method of weighting whole-market indices. I have seen some indices that use square root of market cap weighting in order to not be so Bitcoin-heavy, but I am not convinced that that is a better representation of the market or that it would lead to better returns. With these criteria in mind I evaluated the top coins by market capitalization. I decided to use CoinGecko as my main source, but I do cross check the values with CoinMarketCap and CoinCap.io to avoid some big flaw in CoinGecko's methodology.
Obviously the big guy is in.
I also have no issues with Ethereum.
Ripple is a bit too centrally-controlled for my taste and there's also the worry that the value of the XRP token itself may not be too correlated with the network's success, but I still consider it to be worthy for inclusion.
Tether is excluded due to being a stable coin and being centrally-controlled.
The only thing that worries me about Bitcoin Cash is that the community seems to be too worried about insisting that it is the true Bitcoin instead of developed, but I don't see any reason to exclude it given my criteria.
This is the first asset with which I don't have too much experience. Their website is a bit too heavy on buzzwords, but my research seems to show that it is a real network, there's no big problems with their whitepaper.
I personally have no idea how Bitcoin SV is so high in market capitalization, as I see it as just Craig Steven Wright's tool to strengthen his Satoshi claim, but the point of the index and the criteria is to remove my personal feelings from the decision, so it stays in.
Litecoin is one of the oldest assets around and I have no objection for it.
This is the first one where I am having a hard time deciding if it stays in or not. Its website is full of buzzwords. They have a whitepaper explaining how the network works, but I can't see it as much more than a centrally-managed token with a bunch of apps around it and no real value proposition. The company itself seems shady, having been through a name change, as it was previously called Monaco, the way their cards work smells heavily like a Ponzi scheme, they promise huge interest rates for staking random coins with them and the amount of people that show up speaking well of it in any post about it reeks of paid shills. For some reason it is also not listed on CoinCap.io, although it is listed on CoinGecko and CoinMarketCap. It is also listed on fewer exchanges than other coins we've seen so far. I couldn't find any concrete evidence of it being a scam, but I am excluding it for being a centrally-controlled token.
This is a Binance-controlled token, so it is out.
I also didn't know much about this coin, but my research didn't raise any red flags about it, so it's in.
This one is an ERC20 token, but it is managed by a smart contract and although it seems to be somewhat centrally-controlled by now it does have a governance model to make this control be diluted over time. It is also trying to solve a real problem, so it is in.
I was not too familiar with it, but after researching about it I really like the idea. I see no problem in including it.
Stellar feels to me a bit too much like Ripple 2.0, but I don't have any concrete problems with it.
This is an OKEX-controlled token, so it is out.
Another one of the old kids in town, I have no problems with it.
I have a "too buzzwordy" feeling about TRON, and I feel it is a bit too much connected to its founder, but no concrete problems as well.
This is a bitfinex-controlled token, so it is out.
USD Coin is excluded due to being a stable coin and being centrally-controlled.
This is an asset that I am not too sure I understand completely, and it is not listed from CoinCap.io and its market cap is not computed on CoinMarketCap. From what I can gather a cToken is meant to be a token that identifies that you have deposited in Compound's loan market. The only place where it is really traded is in the Compound exchange itself, and it's value is tied to the interest accrued from the loans in the platform and to the underlying asset, which in this case is DAI, a stablecoin. I find Compound Finance interesting and intend to read more about it, but I don't think cDAI is fit for my index, as it is not freely tradeable and tied to a stablecoin.
This is a Huobi-controlled token, so it is out.
This is one more buzzwordy smart contract platform with no concrete red flags to it.
A fork from the main Ethereum chain that rejects the rescue of stolen funds from a buggy smart contract. I am sympathetic to the idea of rejecting a centrally-proposed hardfork, and I see no red flags with this coin. And with this we are up to my intended 15 assets. This is the composition of the index with current market capitalizations:
This is the portfolio I intend to target from now on, with occasional rebalances of course. I would like to hear what you think about my criteria and my application of them, and where I could improve it.
As in other historic scenarios when someone wants to implement a policy which is against people's best interests then the easiest way to do it to manipulate people into believing that the said policy is in their best interests because in case of success the people will not only NOT oppose the harmful policy but they will embrace it. Unfortunately manipulation works and it's very easy to do: when you have no rational arguments to win a debate then the only way to win it is to address the irrational inner-desires of your opponent because he has no control over them. The documentary "The Century of Self" does a good job of explaining the process: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnPmg0R1M04 Blockstream unofficial agenda is to destroy, delay or discredit the BTC concept. They did a splendid job however they have one huge problem: hard forks. Hard Forks means that people can leave BTC's plantation and keep alive the BTC concept outside of their control which is simply not acceptable for them. Communism biggest problem was the existence of capitalism; any closed system biggest problem is the existence of an alternative better system. That's why Blockstream doesn't give a sh*t about BTC scaling, it's all a circus, and their main purpose is to discredit, discourage and destroy any BTC hard fork ... at any cost. This is the main reason why since 2017 they are trying to kill BCH. Until now their most successful attack vectors were:
Manipulate BTC price. The only reason BCH did not take over BTC in 2017 is Tether printing and BCH will not be able to compete with BTC on price until TetheBitfinex are gone. Probably the most successful Ponzi-scheme in history (outside of the banking sector).
Unrelentless smearing campaign without any real basis (on-chain scaling doesn't work, BCH is a scam, BCH was founded by Roger Ver, BCH is bcash, BCH is an altcoin, etc). Unbelievably successful as almost all my real life friends know that BCH is Roger Ver's scam coin despite all my efforts to correct them.
Unleashing a ton of BTC scam-forks (BTC Gold, BTC Diamond, others) which are truly scams without any prospects for the future. The idea was to drown BCH in a see of sh*t because most crypto-users don't know the difference between forks. Fortunately this was a dud.
Incentivize BCH forks. Unfortunately BSV sole reason to fork from BCH was to destroy BCH's market value and split the community. Neither CSW or CA care about the BSV project because in that case they would have protected BSV market value while in fact they've done the opposite. This was quite successful.
Now, what's new: 5) Create a new narrative - Splitphobia (Hard Fork-phobia) - intended to delay BCH progress by creating an irrational fear of hard forks. That's why BSV trolls are complaining about BCH forks (!?), suddenly Binance's CEO is complaining about BCH forks, why Greg Maxwell is whining about Schnorr signatures first on BCH blockchain or why unknown hashrate suddenly appears on BCH blockchain before each upgrade fork. As if necessary to dispel why this concept is utter garbage then I will mention some facts:
There is nothing irrational about hard forks. They are not inherently evil or good. Hard forks are the best way to safely upgrade the BCH blockchain at any given time. Soft forks don't work and in fact BSV was born because of a soft fork for network upgrades.
Without Blockstream, Bitfinex and Binance sponsored attacks BCH forks should not impact BTC price value -> the BTC miners would not be forced to switch to BCH in order to protect it therefore indirectly damaging the BTC price value. They are complaining about BCH forks damaging BTC but without their sponsored attacks there would be no damage to the BTC price value. What's the name of this?
Hard forks are very powerful and can be used to implement consensus altering changes. However no such changes were implemented until now and ABC's roadmap is pretty clear about the future (https://www.bitcoinabc.org/2018-08-24-bitcoin-abc-vision) Now, I think Avalanche will slightly impact the consensus rules but that's another topic :)
TL;DR: All this noise about BCH planned network upgrade is just that: noise. BCH will upgrade again, it will become better and stronger, and Blockstream cannot do anything about it (in fact they are running out of options). The surprising loser in this fight is BSV which is acting in Blockstream's interests and against BSV's holders interests. Whomever invested in BSV will be completely wiped out at the end of this debacle. Thanks @deadalnix and all the other awesome BCH developers. The fact that you are making Blockstream and BSV trolls go out of their minds means that you are doing the right thing :)
In this short post I want to set out my case for the moral justifiability of 51% attacks against proof of work cryptocurrencies. In the past, a 51% attack was a theoretical construct that most people didn´t seem to think would be practically achievable or lucrative. This has now changed, as hashpower can be rented on sites like Nicehash and Mining Rig Rentals for a few hours at a time. The attack delivers the attacker two prominent opportunities: -You can orphan blocks of ¨legitimate¨ miners. This essentially means that whatever work was produced by legitimate miners during your attack became worthless. Mine a secret chain of two hours worth of blocks, release it and you orphaned 2 hours worth of blocks by your competitors. By the time most of the miners have noticed their blocks were orphaned in an attack, their nodes will have been automatically mining on your own chain for a while and it will be too late for them to do anything about it. The amount of money they lost would be equivalent to the amount you had to spend to produce your chain. Because mining is an industry with tight margins, the economic impact on these miners can be very big. The cost may be sufficient in case of a very long attack, to persuade them to quit their endeavor and get a real job. -The more important opportunity is that you´re able to double spend your coins. This is potentially, incredibly lucrative. How lucrative it is tends to depend primarily on the inflation rate of a cryptocurrency. A low inflation rate means relatively little ¨work¨ is done to maintain the security of the system. A high inflation rate on the other hand, turns the cryptocurrency into a very poor long-term investment. As a consequence, most cryptocurrencies face declining inflation rates, that delay the problem of their ultimately unsustainability into the future. The bank of international settlements explains this issue here. When it comes to the moral justification of a 51% attack, we first have to ask ourselves why proof of work is morally unjustifiable. There are two main reasons for this: -Proof of work has an enormous environmental impact, that ensures future generations will have to deal with the dramatic consequences of climate change. There is no proper justification for this environmental impact, as it delivers no clear benefits over existing payment systems other than the ability to carry out morally unjustifiable actions like blackmail. -Proof of work is fundamentally unsustainable, because of the economic burden it places on participants in cryptocurrency schemes. Cryptocurrencies can´t produce wealth out of thin air. The people who get rich from a cryptocurrency becomes rich, due to the fact that other people step in later. In this sense we´re dealing with a pyramid scheme, but the difference from regular pyramid schemes lies in the fact that huge sums of wealth are not merely redistributed, but destroyed, to sustain the scheme. The cost of the work to sustain the scheme is bigger than you might expect, because the reality is that relatively little money has entered bitcoin. JP Morgan claims that for the crypto assets at large, a fiat amplifier of 117.5 is present, as a purported $2 billion in net inflow pushed Bitcoin’s market capitalization from $15 billion to $250 billion. You have to consider that the Digiconomist estimates that $2.6 billion dollar leaves the Bitcoin scheme on an annual basis, in the form of mining costs to sustain Bitcoin. The vast majority of retail customers who entered this scheme ended up losing money from it. In some cases this lead to suicides. The fact that proof of work is morally unjustifiable doesn´t directly lead to a moral justification for a 51% attack. After all a sane society would use government intervention to eliminate the decentralized ponzi schemes that are cryptocurrencies. There are a few things that need to be considered however: -Governments have so far failed in their responsibility to address the cryptocurrency schemes. Instead you tend to see officials insist that proof of work might suck and most cryptocurrency is a scam, but ¨blockchain technology¨ will somehow change the world for the better. Most libertarians who saw these schemes emerge insisted that it´s stupid to participate in them because the government would eventually ban them and round up the people who participated in them. This didn´t happen because of the logistical difficulty of suppressing these schemes (anyone with an internet connection can set one up) as well as the fact that suppressing them would lend credence to the anti-government anarcho-capitalist ideology on which these schemes are based. Goverments might say ¨these schemes facilitate crime, ruin the environment and redistribute wealth from naive individuals to scammers¨, but anarcho-capitalists would insist that governments have grown so tyrannical that they want to ban you from exchanging numbers on computers. -Because cryptocurrency is fundamentally an online social arrangement, governments have very limited influence over the phenomenon. Binance seeks to become a stateless organization, not subject to the jurisdiction of any particular government. Just as with regular money laundering and tax evasion that hides in small nations that can earn huge sums of money by facilitating these practises, governments are dependent on the actions of individuals to address these practices. Whistleblowers released the panama papers and the tax evasion by German individuals through Swiss bank accounts. Through such individuals, the phenomenon could be properly addressed. In a similar manner, cryptocurrency schemes will need to be addressed through the actions of individuals who recognize the damage these schemes cause to the fabric of society. -The very nature of a 51% attack means that it primarily punishes those who set up and facilitate the cryptocurrency scheme in the first place. The miners who pollute our environment to satiate their own greed are bankrupted by the fact that their blocks are orphaned. The exchange operators are bankrupted due to double-spend attacks against the scams that they facilitate. When this happens, the cryptocurrency in question should lose value, which then destroys the incentive to devote huge sums of electricity to it. Finally, there´s the question of whether 51% attacks are viable as a response to cryptocurrency. There´s the obvious problem you run into, that the biggest and oldest scams are the most difficult to shut down. In addition, cryptocurrencies that fell victim to an attack tend to move towards a checkpoint system. However, there are a few things that need to be considered here: -51% attacks against small cryptocurrencies might not have a huge impact, but their benefit is nonetheless apparent. Most of the new scams don´t require participants to mine, instead the new schemes generally depend on ¨staking¨. If people had not engage in 51% attacks, the environmental impact would have been even bigger now. -51% attacks against currencies that implement checkpointing are not impossible, if the checkpoints are decentrally produced. What happens in that case is a chain split, as long as the hostile chain is released at the right time. This would mean that different exchanges may get stuck on different forks, which would still allow people to double spend their cryptocurrency. -There are other attacks that can be used against proof of work cryptocurrencies. The most important one is the block withholding attack. It´s possible for people who dislike a cryptocurrency to join a pool and to start mining. However, whenever the miner finds a valid solution that would produce a block, he fails to share the solution with the pool. This costs money for the pool operator, but it can be lucrative for the actor if he also operates a competing pool himself. In the best case it leads to miners moving to his pool, which then potentially allows him to execute a 51% attack against the cryptocurrency. -It´s possible to put up a 51% attack bounty, allowing others to do the work for you. This works as following. You make transaction A : 100 bitcoin to exchange X, for a fee of 0.001 BTC. Once this transaction has been included in a block, you immediately broadcast a conflicting transaction with another node: You´ŕe sending those 100 bitcoin to your own wallet, but you´re also including a 50 bitcoin fee for the miners. The miners now have a strong incentive to disregard the valid chain and to start mining a new chain on an older block that can still include your conflicting transaction. Provided that pool operators are rational economic agents, they should grab the opportunity. -Selfish mining in combination with a Sybil attack allows someone to eclipse the rest of the network, while controlling less than 51% of the hashrate. Your malicious nodes will simply refuse to propagante blocks of your competitors, thereby giving you more time to release your own block. Selfish mining will always be possible with 33% of the hashrate and as far as I can tell there are no pathways known currently to make the scheme impossible for people with 25% of the hashrate. This potentially makes a 51% attacks lucrative without having to carry out double-spend attacks against exchanges. Although double spending is a form of theft, it´s not clear to me whether a selfish mining attack would get you into legal trouble or not.
The dreaded 51% attack is a morally justifiable and potentially lucrative solution to the Nakamoto scheme.
What coin is your "sleeper" coin that has a promising future?
The Crypto Money market continues to surprise everyone as usual. The digital money market experienced the most extended month-long season in its history during 2018. Remember we were on a downward trend for months in the early months of 2019 and early spring. There had even been accusations of "the biggest Ponzi scheme in history, or the biggest bubble in the financial markets," for bitcoin. My friends and I have had disappointment and unease. But we all knew that blockchain technology was the latest revolution in the internet world. We have continued to believe that the digital money generated by Blockchain technology is the money of the future. Indeed, history has vindicated us. Bitcoin managed to throw itself over $ 3k in quite a short time after tumbling to 10k USD. Even the most pessimistic of us today talk that it's only a matter of time before it gets above $ 15k. But as I have written at the beginning of this article, the digital money market continues to set its laws and surprise everyone. During periods of Ascension, the BTC climbs pass to rest for a period during which the lower coins are moved, and the ascent would cover nearly all digital currencies. But this bull season shows no such process at all. The BTC acts almost alone. Some of the sub coin fall rather than rise. This has led us all to think again about investments. There are a lot of investors who are staying away from bitcoin because it's overpriced. However, if you are going to invest in digital money markets, you must also add some BTC to your portfolio.
Which BTC wallet should I use? Especially those with the idea of investing long-term will need secure wallets to store their BTCS. Indeed, there are huge risks to the high return that your digital money provides you. In the digital world, your millions are at risk of extinction at once. In recent times, many people have lost their digital money to hackers, both through exchanges and through personal attacks. Therefore, the most crucial feature of a digital wallet should be security. So what wallet should we use?
Ledger and Trezor:
This group of wallets, which we call hardware wallets, have the most severe protection possible, especially with private keys kept away from the online environment. But if you copy the private key that you use to access any of your money in this wallet on a computer, you risk getting your private key snatched by spyware. Another shortage of Ledger wallets is accidents that can happen to you when you carry them in your pocket or purse. İn this case, you will not be able to access your digital money in the hardware. https://preview.redd.it/qy7wd5rlftf31.jpg?width=318&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ef734299851f7c3005bdcc869c7ac6de78ad98a0
Stock Exchange Wallets:
Digital currency investments are the most widely used wallet type since the beginning. But it contains severe drawbacks. a. Stock exchange wallets have central administrations. All your information is under the supervision of the employees of this stock exchange. It has been proven that some team members working on meaningful exchanges have emptied accounts because of their dismissals. b. You are not given the private key of your BTC, which you hold on the transaction. This means that your BTC is entirely out of your control at the time. Unfortunately, we hear that if some exchanges close, your money may be gone. It is also complicated to process at any time. c. You have to pay severe commission fees when you want to turn your money into any digital funds or dollars you want.
WHY THE BEST BITCOIN WALLET: ATOMIC WALLET.
Let's examine together why the atomic bitcoin wallet should be preferred. We can start with this. You've never used digital money, and you want to invest digital money. What do you need to do to buy Bitcoin? You need to transfer your traditional money to a stock exchange or brokerage firm and open an account there first. Then you open yourself a wallet where you can store your bitcoin 3. As a step, you have to transfer your money from the stock exchange to this wallet. However, you can only open your computer and download ATOMIC BITCOIN WALLET! a. Let's examine the Transaction Steps first bitcoin wallet link here let's Open together. b. When you set up the Atomic wallet, you will see how user-friendly instructions are. We all use internet banking. Taking bitcoin with your Atomic bitcoin wallet is also no different from any digital banking transaction. But I still give you my article link, in which I describe the experience I had when opening my bitcoin wallet. If you examine the article, you will see what you need to do at each stage. The best surprise here is your chance to get bitcoin with your debit card. You didn't read it wrong. You can buy BTC with your debit card as efficiently and securely as you can buy any currency. Thanks to the integration of your Atomic wallet with the European Union-licensed finance company Simplex, your BTCs will come to your atomic wallet. c. Atomic wallet will offer you two important security when installed. First, you will only open your wallet with a password you have specified. This means that you have control of all your digital money in atomic. Second, a 12-word verification will be offered to use if you lose your login password, your computer is corrupted, or you are unable to access your wallet due to a new digital environment. This is how you can access your wallet even if you forget your login password. d. Another excellent feature that you'll see when you examine your Atomic Bitcoin wallet is that you can get more than 300 altcoins and tokens, the most traded on the market, from your wallet. You can buy them, Swap them, or sell them and convert them to USD, and of course, keep them in your wallet safely. You can understand what that means, can't you? You also don't need a stock exchange service! You don't need to do dozens of transfer operations for an Exchange. Every transaction is solved in your wallet. e. As a fledgling BTC investor, there is a support line where you can get live help every hour for every issue. You can safely move around the Bitcoin world by joining Telegram channels, which you can access from the link below. Keep it in mind.
You might be a fledgling bitcoin investor, or you might want to own a bitcoin wallet as an experienced cryptocurrency trader. It's hard to find a more functional, more user-friendly, and safer wallet than the atomic Bitcoin wallet. I'm not the only one relying on Atomic wallet's abilities. Binance, one of the largest exchanges on the market, also proposes Atomic wallet. Awc is one of the first projects listed by the BinanceDex Stock Exchange. And it is a digital value that has managed to attract attention even during that period of downfall that we experienced in the last months of 2018 and early 2019. Keeping AWC as the owner of Atomic BTC wallet will give you a discount on wallet transactions. I wish you all plenty of lucrative days. Remember to review the links below. By: N.ipek Celik Bitcoin Talk ID: naz14 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2221283 Atomic ETH: 0xAf97EF26616F6ADcD6D66AC05a0360E7f6E48Add https://preview.redd.it/95klcewpftf31.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=5c6173ceef9d9278cddfcba83aa1ecc758ee31bd
Bitcoin vs Ethereum. Guide to Understanding Ethereum.
Bitcoin vs Ethereum. Guide to Understanding Ethereum.
I’m writing this predominantly for crypto-newbies. Newbies need to know the difference between Bitcoin and Ethereum. Sometimes we forget how confusing this space can be to new individuals.
What is Ethereum?
Ethereum is one of the largest cryptocurrencies to date. Created by Vitalik Buterin, it has a lot of distinct features that differentiate it from Bitcoin. Bitcoin was created to be a peer-to-peer digital currency and Ethereum was created to serve as a decentralized computer featuring smart contracts. Both are similar in that they utilize blockchain technology to facilitate transactions within the network. Ethereum though, allows for much more utility through the use of smart contracts.
What is a smart contract?
A smart contract is a digital contract which conditions are carried out automatically through self-enforcing logic. A basic example of a smart contract could be one that automatically pays your best friend X amount of money on his/her birthday. The functionality of if/then logic on a blockchain allows for decentralized applications (dapps) to be created and executed on the Ethereum network. This is why Ethereum is referred to as a decentralized computer. You can create your own dapp by learning the Ethereum program language Solidity, or you could use one of the thousands of already created dapps.
What is a decentralized application?
A decentralized application is a application (program) that that is not controlled by a single entity, but rather, by the peers within the network. This means no central authority has control over the program itself. Imagine if YouTube was not owned and controlled by Google, but rather, by everyone who is participating within the network. This means YouTube wouldn’t be able to arbitrarily decide which videos and users are suitable for the platform. This power would instead fall into the hands of the people. Side Note: There’s already decentralized version of YouTube called DTube which is built on the STEEM blockchain.
Technical Differences Between Bitcoin & Ethereum
Bitcoin vs Ethereum
Proof of Work
Proof of Stake (Soon)
The total supply of bitcoin is predetermined; there can never be more than 21 million bitcoins created. Ethereum on the other hand does not have a max supply. You can read Vitalik’s thoughts on this here.
Block Size vs Gas Limit
Ethereum doesn’t have a block size but rather a gas limit. Gas is a measure of the amount of computational work needed to execute a command on the network. The amount of gas needed will depend on the program you are trying to run -- similar to how much gas needed for your vehicle will depend on how far you wish to travel. Gas limit is how much you’re willing to pay for a transaction to be carried out. Gas price is the price at which you’re willing to pay per gas. Together those determine your transaction fee. TX Fee = Gas Limit * Gas Price Websites like EthGasStation take an average of previous transactions to show what the average gas price is. Use it for your own benefit
Ethereum’s block time is much faster than bitcoin’s. ~15s vs ~10min. This means transactions on the ethereum blockchain on average will be much faster than on bitcoin’s. This is also why it’s typically recommended to use ethereum instead of bitcoin when making cryptocurrency deposits into exchanges like Binance.
Bitcoin uses a consensus algorithm known as proof of work (PoW). Ethereum currently uses PoW, but near the end of 2018 ethereum will move to a proof of stake (PoS) algorithm known as Casper. This will initially be rolled out as a PoW and PoS hybrid where every 100th block is validated by PoS.
Understanding ERC-20 Tokens
ERC-20 is a set standard for tokens that are created on the Ethereum network. It was created to allow for interoperability between ethereum based tokens. There are tens of thousands of different ERC-20 tokens due to the free nature of anyone being able to create their own. You may have heard of some of the more popular ones including:
These are all essentially tokenized smart contracts.
Understanding Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)
One of the most common uses cases for an ERC-20 token is to be used as a means to raise capital. These events are called ICOs or Initial Coin Offerings. ICOs are analogous to IPOs (Initial Public Offerings) in that, when an entrepreneur needs to raise capital to fund the business -- he/she asks venture capitalists for money. The venture capitalists in return ask for a stake in the company which is expected to increase in value over time. The difference is an ICO does this through crowdfunding by utilizing blockchain technology. Instead of purchasing stock in the company, you’re purchasing a cryptocurrency (which is often just a ERC-20 token). Then, if the project gains real world utility, the price of the token should increases in value. As you could imagine, because of the nature of how easy it is for anyone to create their own ERC-20 token, bad actors within the space have abused this power to launch fraudulent businesses which is funded through the sale of their token. The most notable example of this is probably BitConnect which promised 1% daily compounding interest with your investment. This of course was a scam, and BitConnect no longer exists. This is not to say there’s no such thing as a legitimate ICO (Ethereum was funded through an ICO after all), however, know that an overwhelming majority of ICOs are fraudulent with 80% being scams. As a newcomer to the cryptocurrency space, understand that there is a lot of fraudulent cryptocurrencies out there. The importance of DYOR (do your own research) can never be understated.
This post is starting to get pretty lengthy so I’m going to cut it here. By now you should have a good understanding of what ethereum is, why it’s important, and how it works. I’ve listed the most important takeaways below:
Ethereum was created by Vitalik Buterin
Ethereum is a decentralized computer featuring smart contracts
The Ethereum platform allows you to build decentralized applications (dapps)
Ethereum will transition to a proof of stake (pos) consensus algorithm
I just wanted to know where people are at. I have nearly paid off my credit card and the second I do I will be buying between $50-100 of crypto a week. For a while I was sort of scared off just cause this is my first time actually in the downshift. I know it's not the first or last time this will happen and it's a normal event, it's just this is the first time i have money invested so having a personal stake did challenge my perception...also it doesn't help to have a family/work mates that think it's all a ponzi scheme. You have enough people telling you it will never take off and you start to doubt it, but then these were the same people that said computers/the internet was dumb and only nerds would ever use them. I'm planning on buying a mix of about 10 things Binance, Bitcoin, Ether, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, BAT, Steem, Neo, Monero, Ethos and maybe the odd random coin if I see something with a good use case/solid team my strategy is going to be looking at what's down for that day/week and buying whatever is down the most. I just feel like i'm buying for the very long term so it doesn't make sense to buy anything when it's green. If i buy when something is having a bad day as long as it's not related to some sort of real world issue i'm just getting it 10-30% cheaper then normal. I really have no intention of selling for at least 12 months (tax on gains is cut in half in Aus) but likely I don't really intend to sell for years unless they go crazy kind of like what happened with ripple going from 0.0065 at jan 1st 2017 to $3.10 on jan 6th of 2018.
Here's a funny (hopefully) post I made about some real life people I've introduced to crypto...hopefully you enjoy it. https://medium.com/@cryptophd23/so-you-want-to-tell-your-friends-about-crypto-cd0a59c0dcd1 Full text below: If you’ve been in crypto for any period of time and you’ve seen the light you smell that the future is being built on the blockchain. We’re on the ground floor. We’re excited about the gains we’ve made. So in these instances we start talking to our friends. We become the guy who just found Jesus, but in this case Jesus is giving us money. Talking to my crypto buddies we’ve all been in this spot at one time or another. We’ve gone to the mountain top and shouted to our No-Coin buddies about our new religion. Praise be unto Satoshi. And it almost never goes well. Just wanted to take a look at the few people you’re going to find: The Mush He used to be a gambling addict and everything goes bad for him. Convinced luck is real and his is the worst. He personally is responsible for BTC dipping back to $6k and he killed crypto. He has lowered his expectations from 4x his investment to hopefully breaking even or making 10%. This guy can ruin your enthusiasm if you’re not careful. Avoid mentioning crypto to him at all costs. Also calls every crypto currency “Bitcoin” even though he’s not invested in Bitcoin at all. In reality, he’s down 2% on his initial investment but now realizes Bitcoin is a scam and he missed the last good run. Big Spender This guy doesn’t have a ton of funds but he does what he can with it. He hears you talking about crypto to all of your friends and wants to ride it as well. He takes his free cash that ‘he’s hiding from the government’ and puts it into crypto. Now he knows you’ve been in crypto for years but his brother got in 3 months ago and made a killing so he just does what his brother says. And that’s buying Verge at the top as it comes out that Wraith Protocol is a disaster. He calls you and tells you and you physically cringe. At least this one isn’t on you, you didn’t tell him to buy Verge. Months later you find out his nest egg was $150 (now $50 of Verge). But at least he doesn’t bug you about it. Painful Noob This guy invested but can’t understand anything. Just wants those gains. Anything beyond buying on Coinbase is beyond him. He comes over to your house and makes you send stuff to Binance to buy alt coins. Then complains the whole time that $ETH is taking too long and he just lost $7 because $ETH dipped and now since $ETH is taking more than 5 minutes it’s all gone. Just poof. Lost it. The really fun part is when he calls you to tell you stuff incorrectly that you already know. Wrong Information “Hey did you know Forbes was evaluating Crypto now.” “They’re not. It’s Weiss.” “No I’m pretty sure its Forbes.” “Dude I spend 40+ hours a week on Crypto. It’s Weiss. I’ve been sitting at my monitor for 6 hours waiting for it to drop then it was a complete nothing burger” “Are you sure?” FUD “Hey did you hear that the Ethereum network is shutting down? It’s too slow. Gotta sell” “Yes. They’re working on it. Raiden Network looks like a very viable solution to it.” “Nah man I hear it’s over. Can I come over tonight to sell my Bitcoin.” Coinbase “Ripple is going to coinbase! We need to buy now! How do I buy Ripple?” “Oh STFU.” No-Coiner that just likes to text you when Bitcoin is down They didn’t invest. Bitcoin is a scam. Bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme. You’re going to crash so hard. When Bitcoin hits 20k they don’t say a word. They’re just waiting. Then it starts to dip. Goes all the way down to 6k. Now the texts come “Man I hope you sold that Bitcoin”, “Bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme”, “Told you to get out.” They don’t listen when you explain your profits are still 8–10x down from 12–15x because of stop losses. They just want to make the point they were right and you invested in a scam. The Sane Ones These guys invest. They ask your advice. They only go in the big cap Coinbase coins but that’s OK. Every now and then you convince them to go in on one of your alt-coins you’re in love with. They struggle, ask questions, complain about the system…but they get it done. Then there’s a dip and they’re in losses…and they don’t call you to complain. These guys make it worth it (mostly). Yeah you feel bad when they hit that dip. But you also realize that they’re going to hodl and make crazy profits. “It’s not all up” you say and they say, “Nah its an investment. I get it” Only difference between the Medium post and the above is a discord I'm in and some funny photos. May your candles be forever green
There is a big cognitive dissonance within the crypto community. The dream of decentralization and censorship resistance is dominated by big centralized exchanges centralized empires like Binance and Coinbase. Speculation still drives the market and fuels the continued growth of centralized exchanges. One of the leading factors fueling the revenue stream of exchanges is new coins, namely ICOs and in future STOs. ICOs became nothing more than a way of Flipping Tokens. Most ICOs used and continue to used Proof of Greater Fool to push forward their blockchain. People invest in something that they know is probably worthless and extremely overpriced, hoping that they can sell that worthless overpriced digital token to a "Greater Fool". In the end, all ICO investors are fools because even if Fool #1 manages to Flip the token at 3x the price he bought it at, he is still the fool compared to the ''ICO that now holds millions** collected by all the #1 fools. Essentially ICOs that list on exchanges right away that have nothing to offer and no product are basically Ponzi schemes, with ICO team at the top, ICO Buyers second Layer and people on the exchange at the bottom of the pyramid. The IEO (Initial Exchange Offering) is a natural evolution of this Ponzi scheme: Now with ICO and Exchanges working together to pump up the price, being able to freely manipulate the price of the token and print free money. As Cryptocurrencies are a totally unregulated market they are pretty much free to do whatever they want. Cryptocurrency exchanges basically became empires fueled by greed, trading fees, listing fees, and so much more. These empires have no interest in changing the system, similar to how banks do not want to give away power. It is expected of anyone in power to be very corrupt in a totally uncontrolled market.
BUIDL VS Initial Exchange Offerings
In 2019, for the first time in 3 years, projects that focused on tech, product, and business development came out of the darkness. Most people pretended to work to look good to raise money, however, some actually worked to solve problems. 2019 was also the year that we started to see Initial Exchange Offerings. ICOs conducted on exchanges compared to publicly. The original purpose of ICOs was to take away the monopoly of fundraising away from stock exchanges and brokerage firms. An IEO is well explained in that scene of Wolf of Wall Street, when they opened an IPO for Steve Madden shoes. Remember when a centralized entity is responsible for issuing a new stock? It probably has a vast interest in pumping that price, but is it legal in the traditional financial space? ICOs that are actually working hard to build their product also understand that in order for their projects to become successful they need to become decentralized. They need to get their tokens in as many hands as possible. Of course, the person that is attached to that hand should also bring value to the project. The best example of the power of useful decentralization is Bitcoin. Bitcoin has a pretty old tech, had a few bugs in their source code, is super slow, but yet it has by far the best community and strongest social consensus. Hashrate doesn't mean much, after all, Bitcoin Cash had a bigger hash rate for a brief while, but it was the social consensus of the mining community that decided not to implement the new changes introduced by Rodger and Bitmain. Now BCH is less than 96% of the market Cap it used to be. The value of cryptocurrencies is defined by nothing more than censorship resistance, game theory, and token holders. In the long term, these three factors will be decisive determining which coin will have the biggest market cap. Bitcoin has by far the most censorship resistance, probably one of the best game theories and by far the best community. The value of a coin is pretty much all about: how hard it is to change the information saved on the block * (sum of all useful skills and influence amongst all token holders) that can be leveraged by game theory within the ecosystem.
Best case vs Worst Case outcome for an ICO
An ICO that is used for its actual purpose and not as a vehicle to facilitate scamming, can be seen as the big bang of any new blockchain ecosystem. Successful ICOs understand that they need to act like economies, not companies. Usually, economies filled with smart people that can utilize their skills to push their ecosystem that is also run by the good government (good game theory) do very well, compared to economies that have a very small set of inhabitants that can bring economic value for influence and skill sets. The optimal scenario for an ICO would be if the tokens were magically distributed among the best developers, business integrators, influencers, politicians and basically anybody that would be willing and capable of bringing value to the new blockchain ecosystem. Bitcoin’s mechanism to achieve this magical community was via mining and its 4-year reward halving cycle. It takes a great deal of passion and technical skills to start mining. Also, the low token price during the first few years motivated the best developers, who are also deeply interested in the technology, to jump onboard and help on its development efforts. This also allowed them to acquire a lot of tokens in the process. The 4 year Bitcoin Pump and Dumps enable very smart individuals to join the bitcoin ecosystem every 4 years and accumulate at low prices. Regulators love crypto once they’ve also bought a bag. Therefore the best outcome is the magical distribution of tokens to all the best developers, business integrators, influencers, politicians and basically anybody that would be willing and able to help that new blockchain ecosystem. The worst case would be an ICO whose tokens holders are mostly speculators, also known as an initial Exchange offering.
CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant! (26500 points, 3087 comments)
Listen up folks, if you "did", or still do promote cryptocurrency related scams, you will be called out on it via this sub-Reddit. We don't care about you, or your ill-gotten gains, we care about the general well-being of our community first and foremost. (17879 points, 1294 comments)
So no one else finds it a bit odd that Verge is actually going up in price in a bear market, after a hack attack, after being outed for paying McAfee to promote it, and after the 1 developer begged for money from his own community to allegedly help pay his taxes? (2550 points, 875 comments)
I will tell you exactly what is going on here, this is critical information to understand if you are going to make money in this space. How prices work, and what moves them - and it's not money invested/withdrawn. (20144 points, 1459 comments)
CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant! by DestroyerOfShitcoins (26500 points, 3087 comments)
I will tell you exactly what is going on here, this is critical information to understand if you are going to make money in this space. How prices work, and what moves them - and it's not money invested/withdrawn. by Suuperdad (20144 points, 1459 comments)
Listen up folks, if you "did", or still do promote cryptocurrency related scams, you will be called out on it via this sub-Reddit. We don't care about you, or your ill-gotten gains, we care about the general well-being of our community first and foremost. by DestroyerOfShitcoins (17879 points, 1294 comments)
4781 points: hanzyfranzy's comment in Bitcoin breaches $4000 in 15 minutes. What is happening 😳
4368 points: andyalxatydotcom's comment in Trevon James has over $1,000,000 in his Steem wallet, so I am posting this image as evidence as a record for the internet to remember forever, just in case he tries to tell the courts he lost all his money in BitConnect too like Craig Grant is claiming.
4287 points: mikelo22's comment in +1(800)273-8255 - U.S. National Suicide Hotline
4034 points: FSev's comment in +1(800)273-8255 - U.S. National Suicide Hotline
3700 points: arsonbunny's comment in Bittrex holding my about $100.000 hostage with no response to support ticket/email for almost three months
3628 points: eNte19's comment in Enjoy the massacre. It could be a once in life opportunity.
Hello! My name is Kristina Semenova, I am the Head of Investors Relation Department at Platinum, the world’s number one business facilitator. Our team knows how to start ICO/STO in 2019! Why are we so sure? Well, our experience speaks for itself: Platinum.fund But what is the difference between ico and sto? What is the cornerstone of ICO marketing strategy? You will know this after finishing the UBAI courses! Here’s just a quick preview of our Short Course lesson. Real World Examples Multinational accounting firm Ernst and Young found that $400 million of the $3.7 billion USD raised from ICOs (as of January 22, 2018) had been stolen. That is, up to 10% of all ICO funding is virtually being stolen from investors. Though ICO scams are the most common method of theft in the crypto world, some projects will actually operate for a period of time before disappearing with the money. Like in a Ponzi scheme, an exit scam may be planned for later, sometime after a manipulated pump; or some other time the team believes is most opportune to take the money and run. Giza: Giza marketed itself as a platform within which different cryptocurrencies could be stored securely. But after raising $2.4 million in one month, the team deleted the website and stopped replying to emails. Investors were duped by a very convincing whitepaper, and actors had been hired to appear in photographs promoting the project. No investor funds have ever been recovered. Centra: The SEC put an end to fundraising for the Centra ICO and charged the founders Robert Farkas and Sohrab Sharma with orchestrating a fraudulent ICO after they raised $32 million USD. They were promoting the ability to develop financial products backed by VISA and Mastercard, though it was later found that neither partnership was real. One of the major red flags in the Centra project was the use of celebrity endorsements for publicity, reportedly paying champion boxer Floyd Mayweather a significant sum to promote their project. Who wants to leave their Blockchain investment decisions up to Floyd Mayweather, regardless of his unbelievable skill as a boxer and regardless of his own financial success? He should still not influence where you invest your money! Ponzi Schemes: Bitconnect: This is the most infamous Ponzi scheme in the history of cryptocurrency, and certainly the most damaging. Bitconnect was a Bitcoin-based project that rose to an all-time high of $463 per token on the back of a fictitious trading bot. The Bitconnect scam operated by paying dividends to users, proportional to the number of tokens they held and the number of referrals they made. The BCC tokens were exchanged for the users’ Bitcoin, and the highly sophisticated and wildly successful trading bot would trade BTC for them and distribute profits as dividends. The value of the dividends offered was approximately 1% of the initial investment per day. In other words, that is approximately 3,780% per year in cumulative gain! The referral system was capitalized upon most heavily by many of the biggest crypto YouTube channels, including CryptoNick and Trevon James, both of whom are now under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Shortly after the Bitconnect Token reached its all-time high, they received cease and desist orders from the security regulators of Texas and North Carolina, which caused the owners of the Bitconnect exchange to shut down operations, and the price to plummet. Davorcoin: Davorcoin was a lending platform very similar to Bitconnect. And Davorcoin was farcically promoted by the same Trevon James crypto Youtuber who promoted Bitconnect, and is currently under investigation by the FBI for promoting Ponzi schemes. The Texas State Securities Board, in likening Davor to Bitconnect, stated that “DavorCoin is telling investors they can earn lucrative profits by investing in a lending program based on a new cryptocurrency known as davorcoin. Investors allegedly purchase davorcoin and then lend it to DavorCoin”. Davorcoin promptly plunged from an all-time high of $180 to very close to zero after a cease and desist order was made against them on the 2nd of February 2018. Useless Ethereum Token: Despite brazenly stating in the name of the project that the token has no use, the UET managed to raise $340,000 in its crowdsale, and saw a significant pump of over 300% on the HitBTC exchange in February of 2018. The scam was an obvious case of pump and dump, with the total trading volume for UET crashing back down to as low as $3 per day, after reaching as high as $350,000 per day during the pump. It is currently an unfortunate consequence of the decentralized nature of cryptocurrency, but there is a distinct lack of recourse for scammed investors. It is wise to become as well-acquainted with the various indicators of good and bad ICOs as you possibly can. In weighing the factors that will allow you to avoid expensive mistakes, ask yourself in whose favor are the terms of the ICO slanted, yours or the teams? To what extent are you actually likely to profit from this investment? Cryptocurrency is inherently a grey area, whether you are investing in it or not. Investing is another inherently grey area, no matter what the area or object of investing might be. Laws and regulations are not always able to keep up. Trying to define and prove what was or was not a scam is not likely to be as simple as the scammed investor would want it to be. A project can be set up in certain ways to avoid being technically classified or provable as a scam, but the unprepared investor can still be burnt or scammed just as badly. Now we look at more individual indicators that can help you form a valid impression whether or not an ICO or even a fully-fledged exchange-listed coin is a scam or a bona fide investment opportunity. Common Signposts Contrasting Scam & Legitimate Projects Presale Bonus/Token Release If the ICO allots massive bonuses to team members, you may leave yourself open to getting dumped on by presale investors if you buy when the project tokens are listed on an exchange. Likewise, if the project has a short lock-up period for developers and founders, you run the risk of them selling as soon as the token is listed on a major exchange. The token release schedule for the founders of a worthwhile project should show long-term team commitment to that project. The Jibrel Network team tokens will be locked up for 5 years before release, and they had no early investor bonus in the main sale. Both of these factors instilled confidence in the JNT ICO investors, and the tokens were sold out weeks before the ICO was due to end. No Presale lock up If Presale investor tokens are not locked up at all for any period after listing, that could easily be a set up for an exit scam after the initial listing. No presale lockup for early investor tokens is a crystal clear warning, the project may be fatally rigged toward those in the inner circle, with little commitment to the long term health or success of that project. Unsolicited Offers or Unasked for Additions to Groups Characters running scam projects will often add you to Telegram groups out of the blue or send you unsolicited emails with information about their project. Telegram is the most widely used messaging app in the cryptocurrency community and you should familiarize yourself with it to keep yourself in the loop for specific projects in which you invest as well as all kinds of other relevant crypto info. You can adjust the settings on the Telegram app to disallow anonymous additions to cryptocurrency projects if you find yourself bombarded with offers by scammers. Reputable projects at the ICO stage will spread by word of mouth, or by eloquent and meaningful articles posted on their Medium page. A project with serious potential does not need to actively seek participants for their ICO like that. They will often be able to fill their ICO hard cap in a matter of hours, or even just minutes! Anonymous Team Alarm bells, again, immediately, if the project has minimal online presence. The individual team members could be mere fabrications. The entire project could be a farce by utterly inexperienced characters. What if the project leaders are simply unaware of the importance of a strong social media profile? That in itself would be too strange to ignore. Top-level projects will have team members with experience in crypto and the LinkedIn accounts for those members will be easily accessible right there on the project website. You should be able to easily see and evaluate each individual’s experience in their field and ascertain what they bring to the project team. Bitconnect’s anonymous team should have been the only deterrent prospective investors needed to discourage them from putting money into that doomed project. Ethhorse, a current project with anonymous founders and operators should be steered clear of at all costs for the same reasons. Community Atmosphere The subreddits or Telegram groups of scam projects will often feature moderators that do not allow any kind of criticism in the group chat. If, in the process of your due diligence, you encounter didactic admins that only wish to silence your questioning of certain aspects of the whitepaper or mechanism of the tokenomics , you should be concerned. Similarly if you see a coherent critical reply attacked by many different users who refuse to engage the substance of the point being made, that may be a subreddit infested with bots. Projects that have nothing to hide will allow free debate in the chat. Ideally, they hope to develop a positive community that is itself an asset to the long-term success and overall strength of the project. Good projects do not need to automatically brand all criticism as Fear Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD). Whitepaper One common tactic of scammers is to produce a whitepaper that uses too many buzzwords, and deliberately obfuscates and overcomplicates the explanation of the problem and/or its solution. A good whitepaper clearly and concisely lays out the problem and answer, as well as provides compelling arguments why a Blockchain solution is preferable to the current solution. Another point of concern is a whitepaper that gives unrealistic time frames and goals. Bitconnect’s almost comically optimistic profit projections are a prime example of this, as are the 1,354% yearly gains promised by Plexcoin. Respectable projects will set out development timescales in terms of quarters or years, rather than offering immediate profit projections, which are simply a red flag. Advisors/Connections in the Cryptoworld The most prestigious projects will already have partnerships made before the ICO stage, and the worst ones, i.e. the scams, will not mention any such partnerships. Icon (ICX) for example was spawned from a South Korean project named The Loop, a collaboration between 3 Korean universities and the DAYLIFinancial Group. They boasted an advisory panel consisting of the legendary investor Don Tapscott, Jehan Chu and crowdfunding expert Jason Best. On top of a solid team of advisors, good projects will also be visible at major Blockchain events such as the Consensus, and the World Blockchain Forum, etc. Scam projects will be unable to inspire this same level in confidence. As an investor, you should sense a certain presence and expect a certain feeling of trust that should guide you in your investments. After all, it is actually a people-to-people thing you are doing. Key Stress points upon the Timeline to Identify Scam Projects Post Whitepaper Release The period in the immediate aftermath of the release of the whitepaper can also be decisive in establishing the validity of a project. How a team copes with the roadmap that they have laid out for themselves is key. Valuable insight into the operational efficiency and commitment to the project can be gleaned from the quality of and amount of code committed to GitHub. If you have any experience in computer programming you can see how clean and orderly the code is, which gives insight into the skill of the developers, and in turn the quality of project leaders’ decision-making in hiring team members. Scam projects will have little or no code committed to GitHub, or at best it will be copied and pasted from other projects just to cover their tracks. Start of ICO Sometimes, a scam project, or other project in which you would be better off not investing, will change the terms of the ICO just before the ICO starts. The Key (TKY) ICO doubled the price of tokens on the day before the ICO was due to take place, because the price of NEO had risen so drastically. Currently, the TKY token price is still only half of its ICO price. Initial investors are faced with the prospect of a 50% loss on their investment. Exchange Listing Some particularly greedy scammers will create a scam project with the intent of selling tokens in the ICO for BTC and ETH, and then pumping and dumping their share of the tokens immediately after listing. The team of fraudsters behind Monero Gold used this method after the crowdfunding of their useless ERC-20 token. After listing on CoinExchange.io, the team dumped their tokens until the exchange finally ceased trading. Although it is not uncommon for ICO tokens to sold after listing (just like can happen with shares of stock after an IPO), if the price does not stabilize and massive sell walls are continually placed, a scam is likely taking place and the token is being dumped. Fake Ethereum Twitter giveaway You may have noticed Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin’s twitter handle has been changed to Vitalik “Not giving away Eth” Buterin in recent months. This is because a group of devious scammers had created fake accounts with almost exact replicas of his profile (deviating by only one character). The fake accounts promised to deposit 1 whole ETH for every 0.1 ETH the potential sucker deposited into the wallet address provided by the scammer. These fake account “Ether giveaway” scam tweets were set up to be sent in just a matter of seconds after the real person tweeted, and usually always appear immediately after the tweet of the real public figure. Fake bot profiles then came into play, thanking the fake Vitalik, or fake Elon Musk, for holding up their end of the bargain and depositing the ETH as promised. One scammer, or group of scammers, managed to fill a wallet up with almost $20 thousand worth of ETH, which they transferred out, never to be seen or heard from again. Effect of Scam Customers, Upon the Affected Parties Of course, this is no fun for the targeted public figure either. They need to take steps to avoid being targeted again. This will mean changing their handle, their username, or making their accounts private. However, the injured party with whom we are most concerned is the unfortunate scammed social media user, who has no chance whatsoever of getting his or her funds back, ever. It is a harsh lesson to learn. But it is a fact of crypto reality. Nearly every one that trades crypto will at least be exposed to frauds or scams in one way or another. In this case, we think it is better to learn about scams by studying them, rather than learn from your own unfortunate and expensive experience. In the case of Mr. Buterin, these incidents were awful public relations for the Ethereum project. It had only been a few years since cryptocurrency as a whole was primarily associated with criminality and seedy transactions on the Darkweb. Any connection with unscrupulous behavior is best avoided at all costs. Negative associations could have been particularly damaging for Ethereum’s brand because the vast majority of ICO fraud is committed using the ERC-20 token as the template for the scam tokens. Any and all the scamming or fraudulent behavior in the cryptocurrency ecosystem is bound to have a negative impact on the speed at which mainstream uptake finally takes place. Cryptocurrencies, as an emerging asset class, will be painted in the worst possible light. Crypto is aiming to, and is in fact in the process of, causing great disruption in traditional centralized finance and business. Mainstream media organizations are also part of that traditional centralized economy. Press coverage will be damning. Something is happening here, but Mr. Jones doesn’t know what it is. Legal Recourse for Scams We clearly understand, there is a possibility of being scammed. We know the scams are happening. The SEC has made some arrests and actually charged people for operating fraudulent ICOs. But it is a struggle to deal with the flood of ICOs coming from anywhere at any time. The SEC filed charges against two founders of a purported financial services startup for orchestrating a fraudulent ICO that raised more than $32million from thousands of investors. As you know from the ICOs we have covered so far, the lack of regulation allows for direct contact and dealing between the entrepreneurs, business owners and potential investors. While we believe this is a blessing according to the founding principles of Bitcoin and other alternate Cryptocurrencies, because it frees us from traditional roadblocks, middle-men, and all kinds of time-consuming procedures; it also leaves investors in a place where there is often little to no hope of ever recovering funds lost in fraudulent schemes. Actions after a Successful ICO Good post-ICO practice is characterized by stringent security, well thought-out legal strategy and clear communication. Many projects have paid the price in damage to their reputation for failing to adequately guard customer information, leaving themselves open to phishing attacks by fraudsters. Investors in the Enigma project had half a million dollars stolen from them; and a whopping $8.4 million was defrauded from investors in Veritaseum via phishing attacks. After a successful token distribution, the team’s main focus is initially on switching the enterprise from one primarily focused on fundraising, to superficially at least, a fully-fledged, functioning business. This involves removing most of the token sale-related content from their main webpage, sending newsletters to all successful ICO participants, and sending refunds to those who may have missed the deadline or the hardcap. Then, with the stressful and complicated fundraising stage finally concluded, a portion of the funds raised can be assigned to fuel the growth of the project community. This can involve hiring community managers, forum admins, and social media managers to outsource the job of keeping investors in the loop. The founders can focus on growth strategy and product development. The cultivation of a thriving and energetic community is extremely important. The community will give you free marketing for your product and your business. Community members who believe in the project, and are engaged by professional moderators, can give you very effective promotion to other prospective investors. Communication with community members is a great way to test ideas and gauge sentiment related to various aspects of your project. The project leads must set aside adequate funds for lawyers. The project will need to address potential future or imminent problems with regulators, at the very least. The transition from fundraising project to full-fledged business can be incredibly challenging, and even more stressful than the ICO itself. The main thing to remember is that your pre-sale and ICO investors are not just silent investors waiting for a return. They are the early adopters of your solution, of your product; they are the community and promoters of your project; and they are the individuals with a vested interest in the financial success of your venture. The ICO environment is not as heavily regulated, so quarterly and/or semi-annual reporting is not required the way it is in the traditional world. That means your own style of effective communication about the progress and key developments on your project matters even more. In the ICO world, you communicate with your press releases, social media, and Medium posts. You also communicate by the very nature of your relations with your exchange, and relationships with your cornerstone investors. Effective communication and good business relationships can play a prominent role in the success or failure of your venture (by token liquidity and valuation). If your investors start to lose interest, and stop trading your token on the exchange, liquidity will dry up and cause increasingly volatile price swings. You need to keep certain things in mind, and follow effective practices to maintain a happy and motivated community. Social Media & Medium In addition to your website, your social media & Medium blog most likely formed a significant part of your ICO preparations. Your purpose pivots after the ICO from one of promotion to one of communication. Consistent, informative and material Medium blogs, also Facebook and Twitter updates, ensure that investors remain engaged and well-informed of what the company is up to. Frequent activity in this space makes investors feel much more comfortable. You can foster a kind of organic community expansion that is consistently advertising your project to potential new members. Cornerstone Investors & Exchanges As we mentioned, your relationship with investors in the ICO world is different from that of the traditional silent IPO minority equity partners. Consistent, Transparent & Honest communication is incredibly important here. Even if an ICO is struggling to overcome a problem or whatever issues are occurring, honest communication from the team is key to business survival. You should think of and treat your exchange like a business partner too, a very important one at that. Exchanges provide liquidity for you and your investors. That liquidity is like the blood for your business. Many top exchanges demand nothing less than absolute honesty and integrity, it is imperative to maintain strong and comfortable relationships with exchanges. Everything we have said so far, also applies to your Telegram channel and forums too. These give you another great opportunity to build a thriving community. Team members and investors can enjoy lively debates in their Telegram channels. This can be constructive discussion, or critical commentary too. But it is always valuable as a direct link between the team and the community. It is always good to know how people are feeling and what they expect from you and your project. You are able to use your Telegram channel and forums to consistently adapt your marketing and communication strategy. Keep your investors as happy and comfortable as possible, and you will be more likely to attract new investors and allocations. Other forums around the internet operate more or less in the same manner as Telegram. After a successful funding round with the hardcap reached and time to spare, legal counsel has been secured, and the community is flourishing, the team will prepare for their first listing by paying the exchange fee and waiting for the announcement by the exchange. Unless they are willing to pay exorbitant fees for an immediate listing on Binance for example, teams will usually settle for an initial listing on a second-tier exchange. The fee charged by an exchange depends on many different factors that we will cover in more detail in the next section. ICO Company actions after a Successful ICO Real World Case Study The Basic Attention Token (BAT) project, when used in conjunction with the Brave Browser, allows users to pay micro-fees in BAT to their most-used sites. The idea was conceived by Brendan Eich, the inventor of Javascipt and former CEO of Mozilla Firefox. Investors absolutely pounced on it at ICO and the project raised an amazing $35million in under 30 seconds. The BAT/Brave project has delivered on time on nearly all of its targets, helped in no small part by having a working product, the Brave Browser, for over a year before the token launch. The project secured a listing on the premier exchange, Binance, in November 2017. A project can suffer through a disappointing funding phase and, for example, fail to reach 75% of its hardcap. The team will be only partially funded. Though they may be able to initiate the project, the value proposition of the token has been compromised, potentially forever. The market has spoken. There is limited faith in the team’s ability to complete or carry out their project. Failure to reach a hardcap is a serious obstacle on the project road map. This will mean massive revisions to the timescales for development and listing. Such a project may have to be content listing on decentralized exchanges for a period of time and they will lose any post-ICO hype that could have helped the project price to “moon” early on. There is less money to be allocated. Each section of the business will be underfunded compared to the original plan. There can be delays in code development, exchange listing, marketing and community development as well. Calling the Tezos ICO a disappointment might seem strange considering they raised over $232million. But this open-source, smart contracts fintech platform became a victim of its own success post-ICO by devolving into multiple class-action lawsuits between the founders and its foundation chairman. They suffered from a distinct lack of clearly defined roles and expectations on key positions. There was infighting at the boardroom level. This all caused an as yet unresolved delay in listing and development. This is also one example why a capped ICO can be more desirable for investors than an uncapped ICO. If the team have a set amount of capital to work with, an amount that isn’t absolutely ridiculous, like in the case of Tezos, perhaps the resultant greed and discord is less likely. Although it may not be so easy for speculative investors to make a profit from an uncapped ICO with such a massive initial market cap, it is a very impressive feat of fundraising nonetheless. Tezos’s post ICO market cap of $232million is already 64th of all projects, and would have to perform brilliantly on listing to maintain this position. Company actions after a Failed ICO Failed ICOs can mean either fundraising initiatives that have failed to reach the softcap and will therefore not be economically viable, or fraudulent projects whose sole intention was to steal from investors and do an exit scam. We’ve already covered scams and fraud projects in detail, but what happens when an ICO just fails to raise the requisite funds? Projects that are legitimate, with honest founders and developers, refund the ETH or BTC deposited by investors as quickly as possible if the softcap is not reached. The same process that is followed by ICOs that are oversubscribed is employed by those that have failed to raise enough capital. The process of returning funds back to the sender ideally should take a period of days, but more likely will take a few weeks. The Sappy Network, advised by Dan Tapscott, failed to come anywhere near to their funding goals. They are currently in the process of sending all investor funds back to the wallets from which they came. The statement from the founders read as a textbook example of how you should react to failure with the founder stating “In the spirit of transparency and honesty, we are sharing with the community that we did not reach the soft cap, and thus we will be honoring our terms and conditions and returning the Ethers to all contributors” Exchange Listing A bottleneck developed in the ICO market after the explosion of crypto prices in 2017. There was a massive increase of ICO teams on all stages along the pathway from start-up to fully listed crypto asset. Certainly, a huge part of the value proposition for both the token and the project depends on securing a listing on an exchange. It is precisely the liquidity of the token as a valuable asset on a free market exchange, that determines or even defines its value. The liquidity is what makes tokens attractive to investors, but that liquidity simply does not exist without a platform for the exchange. Unfortunately for new projects, the balance of power is heavily weighted in favor of large centralized exchanges that can pick and choose which tokens to list, and the timescale within which listing will occur. Each large exchange has its own list of pros and cons as well as its own specific procedure for coin/token listing. They also have their own particular ethos regarding the type of projects they prefer to list. ERC-20 tokens will be available for trade immediately on decentralized exchanges (IDEX Forkdelta) but those platforms are generally quite low volume, and certainly not a long term solution. Projects must often pay huge fees to be listed on the larger centralized exchanges. At first those fees will be prohibitive. The usual route is to initially list on a more reasonably priced smaller exchange like Kucoin or Gate.io. Listing Process Major centralized exchanges have the power to list anything they want, and they also each have a unique structure that projects must adhere to if they wish to be listed. Each potential new listing will undergo a rigorous examination by the exchange operators to test the feasibility for listing the token. An exchange will likely have forms available on its website that you can fill out to give them all the necessary initial information. If a particular project and token qualify for listing, the team will invariably be put under a NDA, Non-Disclosure Agreement, to avoid any insider trading or other regulatory problem s. In the case of larger exchanges like Binance, there is a period within which owners of a newly listed coin or token can transfer them to the exchange in preparation for trading. This is a fantastic opportunity for traders to make use of the likely pump that occurs after a new token is listed on a large exchange. It is common to see up to 100% increases on the first day of trading, and a subsequent dump of up to 50% or more can follow. This allows traders holding the coin already, to sell for a good profit, and maybe buy back in at a much lower price too, if they think that is a good idea. Exchange Fees There are no definitive figures available to the public regarding fees that major exchanges charge new projects to list. Binance, Bitfinex, Kraken and Bittrex have all been quoted as saying that they do not charge any fee at all but this is almost definitely untrue. Knowledgeable industry insiders estimate between $500,000 and $1,000,000 USD for listing on a top-tier exchange. (There have been more rumors of 7 figure exchange listing fees since January 2018 too). This figure will vary greatly from project to project. Various factors can affect how an exchange determines the fee for a particular project. These are some of the most important ones: Market Maker Service Required Whether or not the client project requires liquidity services directly from the exchange, or can connect proprietary ones via API, will lead to a huge reduction in listing cost. Type of Token (ERC-20 NEP-5 or DAG) Not all tokens are created equal in the listing process. ERC-20 tokens and BTC based tokens have code architecture that will almost certainly be preferred by the exchange. NEO based tokens (NEP-5) such as Ontology will be far most costly to integrate because separate new wallets have to be built to facilitate NEO transactions. The costs involved in integrating Direct Acyclic Graph projects such as Nano into the exchange structure are even worse. Expected Daily Volume Exchanges derive their profits largely from transaction fees and withdrawal fees. The trading volume a new token is likely to bring in will have a great influence on the computation of the exchange listing fee. Exchange Listing Procedures Evaluation Different exchanges have different rules for new listings. A new project must of course abide by specific rules for that exchange before they are allowed to list there. There are procedures that must generally be followed for the most noteworthy exchanges. You can get a good idea of the hurdles to be overcome before listing can take place. Ongoing relationship with Exchanges Exchanges, usually Huobi or Kucoin, will sometimes make it essential for newly listed tokens to engage in “trading competitions” after listing. Competitions can last between 2 weeks, or a month or more, aiming to increase the trading volume for that token, thereby increasing trading fees collected by the exchange, and giving the project extra publicity too. The whales may have made a nice profit already and be very happy about it; but the project token can still get stuck in a long period of stagnation and a loss of post-ICO hype. Once a coin or token has been successfully registered for trading on a particular exchange, the project must focus on maintaining regulatory compliance and paying things like annual maintenance fees too. Exchanges can investigate and delist coins or tokens to see if they have fallen below a certain standard set by the exchange. The exchange is concerned about such things as: an extended period with an extremely low volume; a team member connection to an exit scam; or other such immoral/illegal behavior. Post ICO Company Evaluation After a presumably successful ICO, the necessary funds have been obtained, and the real business, the real team challenge is now, to bring the project to life as a bona fide disruptive Blockchain endeavor! The core advantage of the ICO method of funding business startups is the lack of regulatory hurdles to navigate with regards to fundraising and fund allocation. The funds that have been raised have, in effect, been freely given to the project leads to do with what they will in a no-strings-attached transaction. Of course, there are still strings attached in that the team are tasked with making that money grow for the investors. But there is no regulatory oversight of the process. The regulatory freedom is a double edge sword. It gives a good team freedom to work however they want; and it also allows for unscrupulous thieves to use the ICO process to defraud investors of their ETH and BTC. Advantages of being Post ICO From Investor Perspective You should have little to fear in terms of fraud from a project in which you have invested, if you have done your due diligence correctly. You can expect the tokens to be distributed, and the exchange listing to take place as expected. And you know your project is totally legitimate. There are different ways to think about your ICO tokens after the crowd sale has concluded. If you are a speculative investor looking for a quick flip, you can gauge the correct moment and sell anytime you like, assuming the ICO has been well-received by the markets. From Team Perspective The post-ICO period is, from the point of view of the team, a period where stress and responsibility for the safety of investor funds is passed, in the form of ICO tokens, from the team to the investors themselves. This responsibility for tokens is replaced with the stress of building the actual company itself, and succeeding in the business as planned. A small portion of the responsibility for the project’s success is also passed on to the exchange that has listed the tokens. This is especially true if market makers have been employed by the team or the exchange to provide liquidity. After the ICO has concluded, all funds are released to the project team immediately, so they can start building their business brand, and tackling each step on the road map right away. The freedom with which startups can operate is one of the main reasons behind the explosion in Blockchain businesses in 2017. With the ICO funds safe, and money being put to work on various areas essential to the growth of the project, and the tokens already distributed to investors, the risk of fraud is greatly diminished. If KYC and Anti-money Laundering procedures have been followed correctly during the ICO phase, the risk of phishing attacks and theft will also be marginal now. At any rate, with tokens safely delivered to all participants, the responsibility has passed from the team to the investor. From Team Perspective The release of all funds and the freedom to allocate them with no supervision, as cited above, is certainly a tremendous advantage empowering the team to fulfil the entire breadth of their vision unimpeded. But it does have its drawbacks. If there is a mistake made in the allocation of funds, or an unforeseen problem arises, there is nowhere to turn to, and no means of generating further money via crowdfunding. The ICO is over; it is finished. The project simply has to work with what it has. Your community can sometimes turn against you when the market is going down. Times like that just add to the already intense pressure of presiding over a startup Blockchain business. Solution: DAICO The DAICO, or Decentralized Autonomous Organization Initial Coin Offering, is a means to integrate a more specific, rigorous and regimented smart contract schedule into the ICO process. Doing so will eliminate fraudulent ICOs, exit scams, pump and dumps, and many of the other disadvantages listed above. The DAICO method, proposed by Ethereum creator, Vitalik Buterin, will merge the core concepts of both an ICO and a DAO to leverage the most relevant features of both, in order to solve the main problems in the ICO method. For example, to eliminate the risk of an exit scam, the release of funds will be spread out over a period of time, with the next allotment only being released when a certain set of parameters are met. Buterin explains that the DAICO method will provide user protection in a manner not present in the current ICO model, ensuring funds are not misspent or used in any way contrary to the intention of investors. In simpler terms the DAICO will operate as follows: The DAICO will start with a smart contract by its executors that can set whether this is to be a capped or uncapped round of fundraising (amongst many other options) as well as including KYC requirements. After these settings have been configured, the DAICO is set into “contribution mode” and presented to the public. This stage will function identically to a normal ICO with ETH exchanged for project tokens. Once the funding period has elapsed, or the hardcap has been met, investors will have the ability to set the “tap” for the collected funds. This will set the amount per second, or amount per minute, that will be available to the executor to develop that specific portion of the project to which those funds have been assigned. If investors believe at any point that the team is misspending funds or otherwise wasting time, etc., the investors have significant options to take. Of course they could choose to release more funds to the team. But, they could also stop the tap altogether, and stop the entire ICO, by voting, and actually release all unused funds back to their own wallets from which the investment had first been made! Learn more on how to market any ICO and STO, get better understanding of security token definition and learn what a scam project is! Follow the link to read the full article: UBAI.co Contact me via Facebook or LinkedIn to know more about our services: LinkedIn Facebook
CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant! (26506 points, 3085 comments)
Listen up folks, if you "did", or still do promote cryptocurrency related scams, you will be called out on it via this sub-Reddit. We don't care about you, or your ill-gotten gains, we care about the general well-being of our community first and foremost. (17883 points, 1292 comments)
So no one else finds it a bit odd that Verge is actually going up in price in a bear market, after a hack attack, after being outed for paying McAfee to promote it, and after the 1 developer begged for money from his own community to allegedly help pay his taxes? (2548 points, 875 comments)
I will tell you exactly what is going on here, this is critical information to understand if you are going to make money in this space. How prices work, and what moves them - and it's not money invested/withdrawn. (20147 points, 1459 comments)
CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant! by DestroyerOfShitcoins (26506 points, 3085 comments)
I will tell you exactly what is going on here, this is critical information to understand if you are going to make money in this space. How prices work, and what moves them - and it's not money invested/withdrawn. by Suuperdad (20147 points, 1459 comments)
Listen up folks, if you "did", or still do promote cryptocurrency related scams, you will be called out on it via this sub-Reddit. We don't care about you, or your ill-gotten gains, we care about the general well-being of our community first and foremost. by DestroyerOfShitcoins (17883 points, 1292 comments)
4785 points: hanzyfranzy's comment in Bitcoin breaches $4000 in 15 minutes. What is happening 😳
4364 points: andyalxatydotcom's comment in Trevon James has over $1,000,000 in his Steem wallet, so I am posting this image as evidence as a record for the internet to remember forever, just in case he tries to tell the courts he lost all his money in BitConnect too like Craig Grant is claiming.
4284 points: mikelo22's comment in +1(800)273-8255 - U.S. National Suicide Hotline
4036 points: FSev's comment in +1(800)273-8255 - U.S. National Suicide Hotline
3695 points: arsonbunny's comment in Bittrex holding my about $100.000 hostage with no response to support ticket/email for almost three months
3628 points: eNte19's comment in Enjoy the massacre. It could be a once in life opportunity.
Hello! My name is Slava Mikhalkin, I am a Project Owner of Crowdsale platform at Platinum, the company that knows how to start any ICO or STO in 2019. If you want to avoid headaches with launching process, we can help you with ICO and STO advertising and promotion. See the full list of our services: Platinum.fund I am also happy to be a part of the UBAI, the first educational institution providing the most effective online education on blockchain! We can teach you how to do ICO/STO in 2019. Today I want to tell you how to sell and transfer cryptocurrencies. Major Exchanges In finance, an exchange is a forum or platform for trading commodities, derivatives, securities or other financial instruments. The principle concern of an exchange is to allow trading between parties to take place in a fair and legally compliant manner, as well as to ensure that pricing information for any instrument traded on the exchange is reliable and coherently delivered to exchange participants. In the cryptocurrency space exchanges are online platforms that allow users to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies. They can be centralized exchanges such a Binance, or decentralized exchanges such as IDEX. Most cryptocurrency exchanges allow users to trade different crypto assets with BTC or ETH after having already exchanged fiat currency for one of those cryptocurrencies. Coinbase and Kraken are the main avenue for fiat money to enter into the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Function and History Crypto exchanges can be market-makers that take bid/ask spreads as a commission on the transaction for facilitating the trade, or more often charge a small percentage fee for operating the forum in which the trade was made. Most crypto exchanges operate outside of Western countries, enabling them to avoid stringent financial regulations and the potential for costly and lengthy legal proceedings. These entities will often maintain bank accounts in multiple jurisdictions, allowing the exchange to accept fiat currency and process transactions from customers all over the globe. The concept of a digital asset exchange has been around since the late 2000s and the following initial attempts at running digital asset exchanges foreshadows the trouble involved in attempting to disrupt the operation of the fiat currency baking system. The trading of digital or electronic assets predate Bitcoin’s creation by several years, with the first electronic trading entities running afoul of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) in late 2004. Companies such as Goldex, SydneyGoldSales, and Ozzigold, shut down voluntarily after ASIC found that they were operating without an Australian Financial Services License. E-Gold, which exchanged fiat USD for grams of precious metals in digital form, was possibly the first digital currency exchange as we know it, allowing users to make instant transfers to the accounts of other E-Gold members. At its peak in 2006 E-Gold processed $2 billion worth of transactions and boasted a user base of over 5 million people. Popular Exchanges Here we will give a brief overview of the features and operational history of the more popular and higher volume exchanges because these are the platforms to which newer traders will be exposed. These exchanges are recommended to use because they are the industry standard and they inspire the most confidence. Bitfinex Owned and operated by iFinex Inc, the cryptocurrency trading platform Bitfinex was the largest Bitcoin exchange on the planet until late 2017. Headquartered in Hong Kong and based in the US Virgin Island, Bitfinex was one of the first exchanges to offer leveraged trading (“Margin trading allows a trader to open a position with leverage. For example — we opened a margin position with 2X leverage. Our base assets had increased by 10%. Our position yielded 20% because of the 2X leverage. Standard trades are traded with leverage of 1:1”) and also pioneered the use of the somewhat controversial, so-called “stable coin” Tether (USDT). Binance Binance is an international multi-language cryptocurrency exchange that rose from the mid-rank of cryptocurrency exchanges to become the market dominating behemoth we see today. At the height of the late 2017/early 2018 bull run, Binance was adding around 2 million new users per week! The exchange had to temporarily disallow new registrations because its servers simply could not keep up with that volume of business. After the temporary ban on new users was lifted the exchange added 240,000 new accounts within two hours. Have you ever thought whats the role of the cypto exchanges? The answer is simple! There are several different types of exchanges that cater to different needs within the ecosystem, but their functions can be described by one or more of the following: To allow users to convert fiat currency into cryptocurrency. To trade BTC or ETH for alt coins. To facilitate the setting of prices for all crypto assets through an auction market mechanism. Simply put, you can either mine cryptocurrencies or purchase them, and seeing as the mining process requires the purchase of expensive mining equipment, Cryptocurrency exchanges can be loosely grouped into one of the 3 following exchange types, each with a slightly different role or combination of roles. Have you ever thought about what are the types of Crypto exchanges?
Traditional Cryptocurrency Exchange: These are the type that most closely mimic traditional stock exchanges where buyers and sellers trade at the current market price of whichever asset they want, with the exchange acting as the intermediary and charging a small fee for facilitating the trade. Kraken and GDAX are examples of this kind of cryptocurrency exchange. Fully peer-to-peer exchanges that operate without a middleman include EtherDelta, and IDEX, which are also examples of decentralized exchanges.
Cryptocurrency Brokers: These are website or app based exchanges that act like a Travelex or other bureau-de-change. They allow customers to buy or sell crypto assets at a price set by the broker (usually market price plus a small premium). Coinbase is an example of this kind of exchange.
Direct Trading Platform: These platforms offer direct peer-to-peer trading between buyers and sellers, but don’t use an exchange platform in doing so. These types of exchanges do not use a set market rate; rather, sellers set their own rates. This is a highly risky form of trading, from which new users should shy away.
To understand how an exchange functions we need only look as far as a traditional stock exchange. Most all the features of a cryptocurrency exchange are analogous to features of trading on a traditional stock exchange. In the simplest terms, the exchanges fulfil their role as the main marketplace for crypto assets of all kinds by catering to buyers or sellers. These are some definitions for the basic functions and features to know: Market Orders: Orders that are executed instantly at the current market price. Limit Order: This is an order that will only be executed if and when the price has risen to or dropped to that price specified by the trader and is also within the specified period of time. Transaction fees: Exchanges will charge transactions fees, usually levied on both the buyer and the seller, but sometimes only the seller is charged a fee. Fees vary on different exchanges though the norm is usually below 0.75%. Transfer charges: The exchange is in effect acting as a sort of escrow agent, to ensure there is no foul play, so it might also charge a small fee when you want to withdraw cryptocurrency to your own wallet. Regulatory Environment and Evolution Cryptocurrency has come a long way since the closing down of the Silk Road darknet market. The idea of crypto currency being primarily for criminals, has largely been seen as totally inaccurate and outdated. In this section we focus on the developing regulations surrounding the cryptocurrency asset class by region, and we also look at what the future may hold. The United States of America A coherent uniform approach at Federal or State level has yet to be implemented in the United States. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network published guidelines as early as 2013 suggesting that BTC and other cryptos may fall under the label of “money transmitters” and thus would be required to take part in the same Anti-money Laundering (AML) and Know your Client (KYC) procedures as other money service businesses. At the state level, Texas applies its existing finance laws. And New York has instituted an entirely new licensing system. The European Union The EU’s approach to cryptocurrency has generally been far more accommodating overall than the United States, partly due to the adaptable nature of pre-existing laws governing electronic money that predated the creation of Bitcoin. As with the USA, the EU’s main fear is money laundering and criminality. The European Central Bank (ECB) categorized BTC as a “convertible decentralized currency” and advised all central banks in the EU to refrain from trading any cryptocurrencies until the proper regulatory framework was put in place. A task force was then set up by the European Parliament in order to prevent and investigate any potential money laundering that was making use of the new technology. Likely future regulations for cryptocurrency traders within the European Union and North America will probably consist of the following proposals: The initiation of full KYC procedures so that users cannot remain fully anonymous, in order to prevent tax evasion and curtail money laundering. Caps on payments that can be made in cryptocurrency, similar to caps on traditional cash transactions. A set of rules governing tax obligations regarding cryptocurrencies Regulation by the ECB of any companies that offer exchanges between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies It is less likely for other countries to follow the Chinese approach and completely ban certain aspects of cryptocurrency trading. It is widely considered more progressive and wiser to allow the technology to grow within a balanced accommodative regulatory framework that takes all interests and factors into consideration. It is probable that the most severe form of regulation will be the formation of new governmental bodies specifically to form laws and exercise regulatory control over the cryptocurrency space. But perhaps that is easier said than done. It may, in certain cases, be incredibly difficult to implement particular regulations due to the anonymous and decentralized nature of crypto. Behavior of Cryptocurrency Investors by Demographic Due to the fact that cryptocurrency has its roots firmly planted in the cryptography community, the vast majority of early adopters are representative of that group. In this section we cover the basic structure of the cryptocurrency market cycle and the makeup of the community at large, as well as the reasons behind different trading decisions. The Cryptocurrency Market Cycle Bitcoin leads the bull rally. FOMO (Fear of missing out) occurs, the price surge is a constant topic of mainstream news, business programs cover the story, and social media is abuzz with cryptocurrency chatter. Bitcoin reaches new All Timehigh (ATH) Market euphoria is fueled with even more hype and the cycle is in full force. There is a constant stream of news articles and commentary on the meteoric, seemingly unstoppable rise of Bitcoin. Bitcoin’s price “stabilizes”, In the 2017 bull run this was at or around $14,000. A number of solid, large market cap altcoins rise along with Bitcoin; ETH & LTC leading the altcoins at this time. FOMO comes into play, as the new ATH in market cap is reached by pumping of a huge number of alt coins. Top altcoins “somewhat” stabilize, after reaching new all-time highs. The frenzy continues with crypto success stories, notable figures and famous people in the news. A majority of lesser known cryptocurrencies follow along on the upward momentum. Newcomers are drawn deeper into crypto and sign up for exchanges other than the main entry points like Coinbase and Kraken. In 2017 this saw Binance inundated with new registrations. Some of the cheapest coins are subject to massive pumping, such as Tron TRX which saw a rise in market cap from $150 million at the start of December 2017 to a peak of $16 billion! At this stage, even dead coins or known scams will get pumped. The price of the majority of cryptocurrencies stabilize, and some begin to retract. When the hype is subsiding after a huge crypto bull run, it is a massive sell signal. Traditional investors will begin to give interviews about how people need to be careful putting money into such a highly volatile asset class. Massive violent correction begins and the market starts to collapse. BTC begins to fall consistently on a daily basis, wiping out the insane gains of many medium to small cap cryptos with it. Panic selling sweeps through the market. Depression sets in, both in the markets, and in the minds of individual investors who failed to take profits, or heed the signs of imminent collapse. The price stagnation can last for months, or even years. The Influence of Age upon Trading Did you know? Cryptocurrencies have been called “stocks for millennials” According to a survey conducted by the Global Blockchain Business Council, only 5% of the American public own any bitcoin, but of those that do, an overwhelming majority of 71% are men, 58% of them are between the ages of 18 and 35, and over half of them are minorities. The same survey gauged public attitude toward the high risk/high return nature of cryptocurrency, in comparison to more secure guaranteed small percentage gains offered by government bonds or stocks, and found that 30% would rather invest $1,000 in crypto. Over 42% of millennials were aware of cryptocurrencies as opposed to only 15% of those ages 65 and over. In George M. Korniotis and Alok Kumar’s study into the effects of aging on portfolio management and the quality of decisions made by older investors, they found “that older and experienced investors are more likely to follow “rules of thumb” that reflect greater investment knowledge. However, older investors are less effective in applying their investment knowledge and exhibit worse investment skill, especially if they are less educated and earn lower income.” Geographic Influence upon Trading One of the main drivers of the apparent seasonal ebb and flow of cryptocurrency prices is the tax situation in the various territories that have the highest concentrations of cryptocurrency holders. Every year we see an overall market pull back beginning in mid to late January, with a recovery beginning usually after April. This is because “Tax Season” is roughly the same across Europe and the United States, with the deadline for Income tax returns being April 15th in the United States, and the tax year officially ending the UK on the 6th of April. All capital gains must be declared before the window closes or an American trader will face the powerful and long arm of the IRS with the consequent legal proceedings and possible jail time. Capital gains taxes around the world vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction but there are often incentives for cryptocurrency holders to refrain from trading for over a year to qualify their profits as long term gain when they finally sell. In the US and Australia, for example, capital gains are reduced if you bought cryptocurrency for investment purposes and held it for over a year. In Germany if crypto assets are held for over a year then the gains derived from their sale are not taxed. Advantages like this apply to individual tax returns, on a case by case basis, and it is up to the investor to keep up to date with the tax codes of the territory in which they reside. 2013 Bull run vs 2017 Bull run price Analysis In late 2016 cryptocurrency traders were faced with the task of distinguishing between the beginnings of a genuine bull run and what might colorfully be called a “dead cat bounce” (in traditional market terminology). Stagnation had gripped the market since the pull-back of early 2014. The meteoric rise of Bitcoin’s price in 2013 peaked with a price of $1,100 in November 2013, after a year of fantastic news on the adoption front with both Microsoft and PayPal offering BTC payment options. It is easy to look at a line going up on a chart and speak after the fact, but at the time, it is exceeding difficult to say whether the cat is actually climbing up the wall, or just bouncing off the ground. Here, we will discuss the factors that gave savvy investors clues as to why the 2017 bull run was going to outstrip the 2013 rally. Hopefully this will help give insight into how to differentiate between the signs of a small price increase and the start of a full scale bull run. Most importantly, Volume was far higher in 2017. As we can see in the graphic below, the 2017 volume far exceeds the volume of BTC trading during the 2013 price increase. The stranglehold MtGox held on trading made a huge bull run very difficult and unlikely. Fraud & Immoral Activity in the Private Market Ponzi Schemes Cryptocurrency Ponzi schemes will be covered in greater detail in Lesson 7, but we need to get a quick overview of the main features of Ponzi schemes and how to spot them at this point in our discussion. Here are some key indicators of a Ponzi scheme, both in cryptocurrencies and traditional investments: A guaranteed promise of high returns with little risk. Consistentflow of returns regardless of market conditions. Investments that have not been registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Investment strategies that are a secret, or described as too complex. Clients not allowed to view official paperwork for their investment. Clients have difficulties trying to get their money back. The initial members of the scheme, most likely unbeknownst to the later investors, are paid their “dividends” or “profits” with new investor cash. The most famous modern-day example of a Ponzi scheme in the traditional world, is Bernie Madoff’s $100 billion fraudulent enterprise, officially titled Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC. And in the crypto world, BitConnect is the most infamous case of an entirely fraudulent project which boasted a market cap of $2 billion at its peak. What are the Exchange Hacks? The history of cryptocurrency is littered with examples of hacked exchanges, some of them so severe that the operation had to be wound up forever. As we have already discussed, incredibly tech savvy and intelligent computer hackers led by Alexander Vinnik stole 850000 BTC from the MtGox exchange over a period from 2012–2014 resulting in the collapse of the exchange and a near-crippling hammer blow to the emerging asset class that is still being felt to this day. The BitGrail exchange suffered a similar style of attack in late 2017 and early 2018, in which Nano (XRB) was stolen that was at one point was worth almost $195 million. Even Bitfinex, one of the most famous and prestigious exchanges, has suffered a hack in 2016 where $72 million worth of BTC was stolen directly from customer accounts. Hardware Wallet Scam Case Study In late 2017, an unfortunate character on Reddit, going by the name of “moody rocket” relayed his story of an intricate scam in which his newly acquired hardware wallet was compromised, and his $34,000 life savings were stolen. He bought a second hand Nano ledger into which the scammers own recover seed had already been inserted. He began using the ledger without knowing that the default seed being used was not a randomly assigned seed. After a few weeks the scammer struck, and withdrew all the poor HODLer’s XRP, Dash and Litecoin into their own wallet (likely through a few intermediary wallets to lessen the very slim chances of being identified). Hardware Wallet Scam Case Study Social Media Fraud Many gullible and hapless twitter users have fallen victim to the recent phenomenon of scammers using a combination of convincing fake celebrity twitter profiles and numerous amounts of bots to swindle them of ETH or BTC. The scammers would set up a profile with a near identical handle to a famous figure in the tech sphere, such as Vitalik Buterin or Elon Musk. And then in the tweet, immediately following a genuine message, follow up with a variation of “Bonus give away for the next 100 lucky people, send me 0.1 ETH and I will send you 1 ETH back”, followed by the scammers ether wallet address. The next 20 or so responses will be so-called sockpuppet bots, thanking the fake account for their generosity. Thus, the pot is baited and the scammers can expect to receive potentially hundreds of donations of 0.1 Ether into their wallet. Many twitter users with a large follower base such as Vitalik Buterin have taken to adding “Not giving away ETH” to their username to save careless users from being scammed. Market Manipulation It also must be recognized that market manipulation is taking place in cryptocurrency. For those with the financial means i.e. whales, there are many ways in which to control the market in a totally immoral and underhanded way for your own profit. It is especially easy to manipulate cryptos that have a very low trading volume. The manipulator places large buy orders or sell walls to discourage price action in one way or the other. Insider trading is also a significant problem in cryptocurrency, as we saw with the example of blatant insider trading when Bitcoin Cash was listed on Coinbase. Examples of ICO Fraudulent Company Behavior In the past 2 years an astronomical amount of money has been lost in fraudulent Initial Coin Offerings. The utmost care and attention must be employed before you invest. We will cover this area in greater detail with a whole lesson devoted to the topic. However, at this point, it is useful to look at the main instances of ICO fraud. Among recent instances of fraudulent ICOs resulting in exit scams, 2 of the most infamous are the Benebit and PlexCoin ICOs which raised $4 million for the former and $15 million for the latter. Perhaps the most brazen and damaging ICO scam of all time was the Vietnamese Pincoin ICO operation, where $660million was raised from 32,000 investors before the scammer disappeared with the funds. In case of smaller ICO “exit scamming” there is usually zero chance of the scammers being found. Investors must just take the hit. We will cover these as well as others in Lesson 7 “Scam Projects”. Signposts of Fraudulent Actors The following factors are considered red flags when investigating a certain project or ICO, and all of them should be considered when deciding whether or not you want to invest. Whitepaper is a buzzword Salad: If the whitepaper is nothing more than a collection of buzzwords with little clarity of purpose and not much discussion of the tech involved, it is overwhelmingly likely you are reading a scam whitepaper. Signposts of Fraudulent Actors §2 No Code Repository: With the vast majority of cryptocurrency projects employing open source code, your due diligence investigation should start at GitHub or Sourceforge. If the project has no entries, or nothing but cloned code, you should avoid it at all costs. Anonymous Team: If the team members are hard to find, or if you see they are exaggerating or lying about their experience, you should steer clear. And do not forget, in addition to taking proper precautions when investing in ICOs, you must always make sure that you are visiting authentic web pages, especially for web wallets. If, for example, you are on a spoof MyEtherWallet web page you could divulge your private key without realizing it and have your entire portfolio of Ether and ERC-20 tokens cleaned out. Methods to Avoid falling Victim Avoiding scammers and the traps they set for you is all about asking yourself the right questions, starting with: Is there a need for a Blockchain solution for the particular problem that a particular ICO is attempting to solve? The existing solution may be less costly, less time consuming, and more effective than the proposals of a team attempting to fill up their soft cap in an ICO. The following quote from Mihai Ivascu, the CEO of Modex, should be kept in mind every time you are grading an ICO’s chances of success: “I’m pretty sure that 95% of ICOswill not last, and many will go bankrupt. ….. not everything needs to be decentralized and put on an open source ledger.” Methods to Avoid falling Victim §2 Do I Trust These People with My Money, or Not? If you continue to feel uneasy about investing in the project, more due diligence is needed. The developers must be qualified and competent enough to complete the objectives that they have set out in the whitepaper. Is this too good to be true? All victims of the well-known social media scams using fake profiles of Vitalik Buterin, or Bitconnect investors for that matter, should have asked themselves this simple question, and their investment would have been saved. In the case of Bitconnect, huge guaranteed gains proportional to the amount of people you can get to sign up was a blatant pyramid scheme, obviously too good to be true. The same goes for Fake Vitalik’s offer of 1 ether in exchange for 0.1 ETH. Selling Cryptocurrencies, Several reasons for selling with the appropriate actions to take: If you are selling to buy into an ICO, or maybe believe Ether is a safer currency to hold for a certain period of time, it is likely you will want to make use of the Ether pair and receive Ether in return. Obviously if the ICO is on the NEO or WANchain blockchain for example, you will use the appropriate pair. -Trading to buy into another promising project that is listing on the exchange on which you are selling (or you think the exchange will experience a large amount of volume and become a larger exchange), you may want to trade your cryptocurrency for that exchange token. -If you believe that BTC stands a good chance of experiencing a bull run then using the BTC trading pair is the suitable choice. -If you believe that the market is about to experience a correction but you do not want to take your gains out of the market yet, selling for Tether or “tethering up” is the best play. This allows you to keep your locked-in profits on the exchange, unaffected by the price movements in the cryptocurrency markets,so that you can buy back in at the most profitable moment. -If you wish to “cash out” i.e. sell your cryptocurrency for fiat currency and have those funds in your bank account, the best pair to use is ETH or BTC because you will likely have to transfer to an exchange like Kraken or Coinbase to convert them into fiat. If the exchange offers Litecoin or Bitcoin Cash pairs it could be a good idea to use these for their fast transaction time and low fees. Selling Cryptocurrencies Knowing when and how to sell, as well as strategies to inflate the value of your trade before sale, are important skills as a trader of any product or financial instrument. If you are satisfied that the sale itself of the particular amount of a token or coin you are trading away is the right one, then you must decide at what price you are going to sell. Exchanges exercise their own discretion as to which trading “pairs” they will offer, but the most common ones are BTC, ETH, BNB for Binance, BIX for Bibox etc., and sometimes Tether (USDT) or NEO. As a trader, you decide which particular cryptocurrency to exchange depending on your reason for making that specific trade at that time. Methods of Sale Market sell/Limit sell on exchange: A limit sell is an order placed on an exchange to sell as soon as (also specifically only if and when) the price you specified has been hit within the time limit you select. A market order executes the sale immediately at the best possible price offered by the market at that exact time. OTC (or Over the Counter) selling refers to sale of securities or cryptocurrencies in any method without using an exchange to intermediate the trade and set the price. The most common way of conducting sales in this manner is through LocalBitcoins.com. This method of cryptocurrency selling is far riskier than using an exchange, for obvious reasons. The influence and value of your Trade There are a number of strategies you can use to appreciate the value of your trade and thus increase the Bitcoin or Ether value of your portfolio. It is important to disassociate yourself from the dollar value of your portfolio early on in your cryptocurrency trading career simply because the crypto market is so volatile you will end up pulling your hair out in frustration following the real dollar money value of your holdings. Once your funds have been converted into BTC and ETH they are completely in the crypto sphere. (Some crypto investors find it more appropriate to monitor the value of their portfolio in satoshi or gwei.) Certainly not limited to, but especially good for beginners, the most reliable way to increase your trading profits, and thus the overall value and health of your portfolio, is to buy into promising projects, hold them for 6 months to a year, and then reevaluate. This is called Long term holding and is the tactic that served Bitcoin HODLers quite well, from 2013 to the present day. Obviously, if something comes to light about the project that indicates a lengthy set back is likely, it is often better to cut your losses and sell. You are better off starting over and researching other projects. Also, you should set initial Price Points at which you first take out your original investment, and then later, at which you take out all your profits and exit the project. That should be after you believe the potential for growth has been exhausted for that particular project. Another method of increasing the value of your trades is ICO flipping. This is the exact opposite of long term holding. This is a technique in which you aim for fast profits taking advantage of initial enthusiasm in the market that may double or triple the value of ICO projects when they first come to market. This method requires some experience using smaller exchanges like IDEX, on which project tokens can be bought and sold before listing on mainstream exchanges. “Tethering up” means to exchange tokens or coins for the USDT stable coin, the value of which is tethered to the US Dollar. If you learn, or know how to use, technical analysis, it is possible to predict when a market retreatment is likely by looking at the price movements of BTC. If you decide a market pull back is likely, you can tether up and maintain the dollar value of your portfolio in tether while other tokens and coins decrease in value. The you wait for an opportune moment to reenter the market. Market Behavior in Different Time Periods The main descriptors used for overall market sentiment are “Bull Market” and “Bear Market”. The former describes a market where people are buying on optimism. The latter describes a market where people are selling on pessimism. Fun (or maybe not) fact: The California grizzly bear was brought to extinction by the love of bear baiting as a sport in the mid 1800s. Bears were highly sought after for their intrinsic fighting qualities, and were forced into fighting bulls as Sunday morning entertainment for Californians. What has this got to do with trading and financial markets? The downward swipe of the bear’s paws gives a “Bear market” its name and the upward thrust of a Bull’s horns give the “Bull Market” its name. Most unfortunately for traders, the bear won over 80% of the bouts. During a Bull market, optimism can sometimes grow to be seemingly boundless, volume is rising, and prices are ascending. It can be a good idea to sell or rebalance your portfolio at such a time, especially if you have a particularly large position in one holding or another. This is especially applicable if you need to sell a large amount of a relatively low-volume holding, because you can then do so without dragging the price down by the large size of your own sell order. Learn more on common behavioral patterns observed so far in the cryptocurrency space for different coins and ICO tokens. Follow the link: UBAI.co If you want to know how do security tokens work, and become a professional in crypto world contact me via Facebook to get all the details: Facebook
Ponzi scheme is a Bitcoin scandal works till the incoming money from the newly trapped investors exceeds the returns of the old investors but once the freshly coming money slows down, the scheme wrapped up taking away the money, deceiving the investors. The scheme is considered as the kind of investment fraud based on fake promises for fresh assets. It seems to be that scammers are investing ... BitClub’s $722 million Ponzi scheme finally led to indictments in 2019. Binance is all-but confirmed to be under investigation for money laundering. As long as the digital asset sphere is viewed as a gray area—one in which would-be investors are unprotected and the amount of money you can steal and misappropriate is limited only by how many customers you can lure to your platform—it will ... Another example is Bitcoin Savings and Trust, which was fined $40.7 million in 2014 by the SEC for creating fake investments and using a Ponzi scheme to scam investors. According to Coin Telegraph ... The problem with such a scheme is that investors on the backend will not be paid at all. A Ponzi scheme in operation would look somewhat like this: A promoter of an investment opportunity takes $1000 from an investor. He promises to repay the initial value along with a 10% interest at the end of a predefined period (e.g., 90 days). The promoter is able to secure two additional investors before ... A ponzi scheme is a fraud in which early investors are lured with massive payouts based on how many people they invite into a business that is designed to cheat people. You may have heard this many times before where certain schemes encourage you to invite 3 other investors promising […] Top Cryptocurrency Ponzi Scams as of 2020 - Real-time cryptocurrency market news including Bitcoin ... In both cases, the scam relies on a participant bringing new members with the promise of incredible returns. Ponzi schemes. In a Ponzi scheme, you might hear about an investment opportunity with guaranteed profits (this is your first red flag!). Commonly, you’ll see this scheme disguised as a portfolio management service. In reality, there’s no magical formula at work here – the ... Bitcoin is not a business, nor an organization, company, etc. Bitcoin is a protocol, not an entity. Bitcoin never, and cannot promise profits to people speculating or investing. While there are some uneducated, ill-informed, or immoral people that tell other people that they can make money by investing their money in Bitcoin without any risk, this still doesn’t make Bitcoin a scam. Note that ... A Chinese court has confirmed the sentencing of the masterminds behind the 7.7 billion yuan Chinese Ponzi scheme Wotoken, which had over 715,000 investors. Wotoken Scammers Sentenced to Prison The ... BitConnect: Is It Legit or a Ponzi Scheme? BitConnect is a Bitcoin investment platform and a cryptocurrency released in 2016. Originally, the BitConnect platform promoted Bitcoin investment and touted special investment software that helped generate returns. A few months after creation, however, BitConnect implemented an ICO for its own currency to be used within the platform for investing ... Bitcoin is clearly not a Ponzi scheme for two key reasons: (1) bitcoin exists to provide real value and utility to its users, and (2) bitcoin does not require new investment to keep working. Bitcoin’s Utility Doesn’t Require New Investment. I’ve already debunked the argument regarding bitcoin’s supposed lack of intrinsic value in a separate article, but it’s important to cover that ...
bitcoin bitcoins anderson baloran anderson baloran cryptonickk bruce bruce wang brucewang trevon trevon james eth ltc ripple altcoins invest make money at home ethereum litecoin coinexchange.io ... Cabinet Meeting held chaired by Narendra Modi, Arun Jaitely and other RBI officials to Approve Bill 2018 to Ban Ponzi Schemes running with unregulated funds or using cryptocurrency or Bitcoins ... Serious money is coming into #bitcoin! Mattie will look at that as well as btc market fear. He will also look at bitcoin's current price and why it hasn't re... HOW TO DAY-TRADE CRYPTO COINS FOR MASSIVE DAILY PROFITS - STEP BY STEP GUIDE - Duration: 15:41. Crypto Oracle 406,119 views Close. This video is unavailable. In Todays Educational video i look at the TRADITIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS, i analyse the PRICE OF BITCOIN, i analyse The DOW JONES INDEX DOWJ and i tell you the BREAKING NEWS STORIES from crypto and ... This video looks at what a Ponzi Scheme is, some examples of Ponzi Schemes like Bitconnect, USI Tech and Coinexx.org as well as some general tips for how to spot a scam and stay safe. -----If you ... SUBSCRIBE ! for videos on finance, making money, how to invest and creative ways to acquire passive income ! After 10+ years of investing and saving, I'm here to pass the knowledge onto you ! Ways ... Schemi Ponzi nelle Criptovalute: Come Riconoscerli Regolamento Giveaway 0.007 BTC - Duration: 17:13. The Crypto Gateway - Investire in Criptovalute 1,945 views 17:13 Molly Jane and Jackson bring you the latest in today’s cryptocurrency news: - Is the $3 billion PlusToken Ponzi scheme behind the BTC market crash? - Barclays ends partnership with Coinbase ...